What are the difference between Managed and Federated domains in hybrid mode?

by XDK 11. October 2019 23:53


Managed domain is the normal domain in Azure AD and can be deployed either through "Password Hash Sync" or "Pass Through Authentication" with Single Sign On.

Federated domain is used for Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS). The federation trust will make sure that the accounts in the on-premises Active Directory are trusted for use with the accounts in Azure AD with Single Sign On.

Deployed through WS-Fed and WS-Trust:
WS-Fed: This protocol is required to join a device to Azure AD.
WS-Trust: This protocol is required to sign in to an Azure AD joined device.


Azure Certifications | Identity Management | Microsoft Azure Services

What are RAID 10 (1 + 0) and NESTED RAID (0 + 1) ?

by XDK 8. October 2019 19:55


Lets understand RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) LEVELS:

RAID 0 is also called a “stripe set” or a “stripped volume”. This is because data is spitted (striped) between discs – without parity information for redundancy. In other words, RAID 0 does not provide data redundancy. Inter-leveling of data between the disks causes a significant acceleration of read and write operations – due to the paralleling of these operations on all the discs in the array.

RAID 1 (NESTED RAID) is also called a “mirroring” The basic idea of such a solution is the replication (mirroring) of two or more discs. It means that while using RAID 1, an exact copy (or mirror) is created on two or more discs.

RAID 0+1 means arrays implemented as RAID 1, whose elements are RAID 0 arrays. Such implementation has the benefits of RAID 0 speed and RAID 1 fault tolerance with easy recovery.

RAID 1+0 (RAID 10) array is implemented as RAID 0, whose elements are RAID 1. It combines the same advantages of RAID 0 (speed) and RAID 1 (Fault tolerance with easy recovery), but in different way. RAID 1+0 creates a large stripe of small mirrors. After failure of a disk, while it is being replaced, only the small fragment of a whole array is rebuilt.


Operating Systems

How to trigger a cloudwatch alarm for testing?

by XDK 3. October 2019 22:10


Following is the command

aws cloudwatch set-alarm-state --alarm-name <Created alarm name> --state-reason <comment> --state-value ALARM


Amazon Web Service | CloudWatch

How to create a s3 pre-signed URLs which expires in 10 minutes?

by XDK 3. October 2019 21:48


Following is the AWS CLI command

aws s3 presign <bucket URL> --expires-in <duration in seconds> --region <location name>


aws configure set default.s3.signature_version s3v4
aws s3 presign s3://xdk-bucket/xdkimage.jpg --expires-in 600 --region eu-east-1


Amazon Web Service | S3

How to verify cfn-init & cfn-signal commands, executed successfully on the instance?

by XDK 2. October 2019 10:03


Verify the logs at the following location to debug the instance launch


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Amazon Web Service | CloudFormation

About the author

My name is Xavier Dilip Kumar Jayaraj having 16+ years of IT experience which includes solid experience and depth Knowledge in Application Life Cycle Management, Configuration Management, Implementation and Support using TFS on-premises and Azure DevOps. I have invested in gaining DevOps knowledege to expertise with Cloud Computing providers namely Microsoft Azure and Amazon Web Services in recent years. I am very positive to learn and adapt emerging technologies to client’s environment.

Microsoft Certified: Azure Administrator Associate

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Quotes I Like

"Failure will never overtake me if my determination to succeed is strong enough."  - Dr. APJ. Abdul Kalam

"Always be yourself, express yourself, have faith in yourself, do not go out and look for a successful personality and duplicate it." - Bruce Lee

"Technology is just a tool. In terms of getting the kids working together and motivating them, the teacher is the most important." - Bill Gates

"Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower." - Steve Jobs



The information provided here is based on my expreriences, troubleshooting and online/offline findings. It can be used as is on your own risk without any warranties and I impose no rights.